Distinguish between type I and type II diabetes:
- · Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown.
- · Type 2 diabetes makes up most diabetes cases. It most often occurs in adulthood. However, because of high obesity rates, teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it.
Diabetes is usually a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. People with diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be stored for energy.
Nearly 20 million people in the U.S. have some form of diabetes. Over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes. The World Health Organization estimates that on a global scale, 25 million years of life are lost annually due to diabetes.
Diabetes can cause many disabilities, including paralysis and amputation. Disabilities and chronic illness cause many people to lose their jobs and place a great financial burden on their families. Diabetes requires people to take time off work or to lose valuable time from their education.
According to Population Health Management, the U.S. spends $174 billion on diabetes medical expenses each year. Furthermore, undiagnosed diabetics cost an estimated $18 billion on an annual basis. Diabetes diagnosis continues to rise at an alarming rate due to a myriad of social factors, such as obesity and lack of exercise. Growing diabetic populations will increase the burden on U.S. health care systems and drive up health care costs for everyone.
Diabetes in the US
Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications. Right now in the US, the CDC estimates there are nearly 26 million people with diabetes, and an additional 79 million with pre-diabetes, putting them at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Studies have shown that by losing weight and increasing physical activity people can prevent or delay pre-diabetes from progressing to diabetes.
The prevalence of diabetes by race/ethnicity
Diabetes epidemic among Non-Hispanic Whites is about 15.7 million which means that 10.2 percent of all non-Hispanic whites aged 20 and older have diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. Also, 7.1 percent of all non-Hispanic whites aged 20 and older have diagnosed diabetes.
Diabetes epidemic among African Americans is about 4.9 million which indicates that 18.7 percent of all non-Hispanic blacks aged 20 and older have diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. Also, 12.6 percent of all non-Hispanic blacks aged 20 and older have diagnosed diabetes.
Diabetes epidemic among Hispanics/Latinos – approximately 11.8 percent of Hispanics/Latinos ages 20 or older have diagnosed diabetes. Among Hispanics/Latinos, diabetes prevalence rates are 7.6 percent for both Cubans and for Central and South Americans, 13.3 percent for Mexican Americans, and 13.8 percent for Puerto Ricans.
Diabetes epidemic among American Indians and Alaska Natives – About 16.1 percent of American Indians and Alaska Natives aged 20 years and older who are served by the Indian Health Service have diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes rates vary by region, from 5.5 percent among Alaska Natives to 33.5 percent among American Indians in southern Arizona.
Diabetes epidemic among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders – The rate of diagnosed diabetes in Asian Americans is 8.4 percent. However, prevalence data for diabetes among Pacific Islanders is limited.
Compared to non-Hispanic whites, the risk of diagnosed diabetes is:
- · 18% higher among Asian Americans.
- · 66% higher among Hispanics/Latinos.
- · 77% higher among non-Hispanic blacks.
Compared to the general population, African Americans are disproportionately affected by diabetes:
- · Blindness – African Americans are almost 50 percent as likely to develop diabetic retinopathy as non-Hispanic whites.
- · Kidney Disease- African Americans are 2.6 to 5.6 times as likely to suffer from kidney disease.
- · Amputations – African Americans are 2.7 times as likely to suffer from lower-limb amputations.