History of firm
McDonalds Corporation began in the state of California by two brothers, Mac and Dick McDonald. Originally, the restaurant was named McDonald’s Bar-B-Que and opened in 1940. However, the restaurant was closed in 1948, but, then reopened three months later as self serve, drive in restaurant. At this time, the menu had a few items and French fries were added in 1949 to the menu. Ray Kroc, who was a distributor of milkshake mixers, was the first to franchise the McDonald’s restaurants in the state of Illinois (“McDonald’s Corporation”).
After the first franchise, 500 restaurants open and in 1965, McDonalds corporation went public on the New York stock exchange. McDonald’s began their global expansion. McDonalds created a joint venture with Japanese business man, Den Fujita in 1971, Fujita opened the first McDonalds in Tokyo (Martin, 1998). Also in the year of 1971, McDonald’s entered Germany and Australia. Today, there is 980 restaurants in France and 1,200 in the U.K. Then in 1981, the McDonalds continued their international growth by expanding into countries such as Spain, Denmark and the Philippines. After 1983, McDonalds expanded into 30 countries and opened 7,800 restaurants globally. In 1984, McDonald’s broke the $10 billion sales barrier and served its 50 billionth hamburger. “A new McDonald’s restaurant opened somewhere in the world every 17 hours, and the average restaurant enjoyed an annual sales volume of $1,264,000” (“McDonald’s Corporation”). During the early 1990’s, McDonald’s corporation reached Russia and furthered their expansion in Europe and in 2009, McDonalds announced their entrance into China (“McDonald’s Corporation”).
Key Defining Moments
McDonalds corporation experienced many key defining moments that not only set the stage for global expansion, but added iconic items to their menu that helped McDonalds become the global giant that they are today. In 1949, French fries were added to the menu. Shortly before the company went international, the Big Mac was introduced in 1968. Another large addition to the menu that would become a breakfast sensation was the Egg McMuffin which was introduced in 1973. McDonald’s corporation did not cease there. McDonald’s launched the Happy Meal with a toy in 1979.
Along with many new additions to the menu with iconic staples, McDonalds also started to diversify their operations. McDonalds diversified their operations by purchasing Boston Market, Donato’s Pizza and Chiptole Mexican in the year 2000 (“McDonalds Corporation”). However, in 2006, “Disney entered a cross promotional agreement with McDonald’s in 2006. The company sold its stake in Chiptole Mexican Grill through public stock offerings during the same year” (“McDonalds Corporation”). Another key defining moment for the corporation was in 2009, the announcement of the global partnership with Twentieth Century Fox, which enable more restaurant promotions in thousands of the global restaurants (“McDonalds Corporation”) .
Many people have had their first job working at a McDonald’s restaurant. McDonald’s employees over 1.7 million employees world wide (www.aboutmcdonalds.com). 33 percent of those employees are teenagers (Sterrett, 2007). However, according to Sterrett, the amount of teenagers applying for work at McDonalds are decreasing. “The reason isn’t clear, but many attribute the shift to an intensified focus on academics and after-school activities” (Sterrett, 2007). Also, McDonalds equipment has enhanced over time. It is not just flipping burgers on a griddle. Cooking equipment and procedures are evolving and it takes a person who can multitask and think more analytically. McDonalds has incorporated exams during the interview process to find people with the right mindset and skills for the job.
Most fast food employees are between the ages of 16 and 25, and the job industry is planning on increasing up to 17 percent in the next decade. McDonalds has started a campaign launch to help recruit qualified employees to keep their high standards going in the restaurants. A study included in the article states, “An internal McDonald’s study shows that stores with higher-performing crews reduce turnover by 30 percent and increase sales by $200,000 annually” (Sterrett, 2007). These efforts of hiring the best possible matches for the industry is paying off for the Corporation. McDonald’s reduced turnover by 9 percent and hit sales of $21.6 billion. “The fast food industry averages about 150 percent annual employee turnover” (Sterrett, 2007). The labor conditions for McDonalds is you must be at least 14 years of age to be considered for employment and can only work 12 hours a week if under 16 years of age.
Along with being one of the leading employers in the fast food industry, diversity plays a very important role in the operations of McDonalds. Diversity is one of the most important ways of doing business. Diversity is part of McDonald’s business plan is part of the business planning process. Diversity is the corporations most valued initiative and is always tied into the daily way of life at McDonalds. McDonalds has diversity business planning guidelines that is rolled out to all levels of leadership in the corporation. It is also tied into the strategic planning process. At McDonalds, we want a diverse workforce to represent the people we serve (“Diversity at McDonalds”).
General Management Philosophies
The management philosophies at McDonalds are about creative thinking and leadership initiatives. Management at the corporation has a policy that encourages the innovators of the organization to head up cross-functional teams to develop ideas and for innovation and report them to their managers. McDonalds also uses mentoring and peer networks to help harvest innovative thinkers and future leaders in the organization. Many of the leaders in the corporation got their start at the fryer or on the line assembling sandwiches (Cohn, Katzenbach, Vlak, 2008).
Values to McDonalds is extremely important in the way we conduct business and operate both globally and in the community. McDonald’s values are as listed from (“Values in practice”):
- · We place the customer experience at the core of all we do
- · We are committed to our people
- · We believe in the McDonald’s System
- · We operate our business ethically
- · We give back to our communities
- · We grow our business profitably
- · We strive continually to improve
Along with McDonald’s values is their mission statement that the corporation holds very dearly. “McDonald’s vision is to be the world’s best quick service restaurant experience. Being the best means providing outstanding quality, service, cleanliness, and value, so that we make every customer in every restaurant smile” (www.aboutmcdonalds.com). These values and missions assist McDonalds continue to being the number one in their industry. The values and mission enable the corporation to give all the customers a great experience and continue to grow the brands and employing the best individuals we can. Diversity plays a large role in the corporation operates. As stated on, www.aboutmcdonalds.com, “At McDonald’s, we are moving from awareness to action. Our goal is to have people within our organization working and living to reach their full potential” (www.aboutmcdonalds.com).
Benchmarking Data and Similar Processes
Dr. Ettlie tells addresses a concept that McDonald’s uses to drive freshness in their stores. The concept is called “Made for you” by the corporation, but marketed to the public as “just for you”. It is a benchmarking process where the food is no longer prepared to put into stock that is used to meet demand. This method is to prepare food that is driven by customer demand. This approach eliminates the sitting time of the product, which is non-value added and increases customer satisfaction across the board.
Made for you is a very important concept at McDonald’s. Based on a 2010 survey by Consumer Reports of 28,000 consumers judging the best tasting burger, McDonald’s comes in dead last. Improving the quality of the product as much as possible is important when consumers are sending signals that they do not think the product is good when compared to other companies. The principle that McDonald’s can sell a product that customers do not like when compared to similar products signals that there is something else driving sales at this company. McDonald’s has launched a business campaign in which they seek to redefine the overall experience in the restaurant.
According to Marketing Week, another benchmark that McDonald’s is using is connecting with customers and redefining their business. This has shown successful against rival Burger King, which has been hurt severely by the campaign. Business Week magazine tells us that Burger King is being hurt so severely just by trying to catch up with McDonald’s that costs of the overhaul could exceed 3 billion dollars. This has been a tough sale as well, because Burger King is a heavily franchised restaurant, where McDonald’s is 60% corporately owned, and matches 40% of all franchisees’ investments with corporate dollars. Decisions at Burger King are made, in part, by the franchisees, rather than by the corporate office, and all improvements to franchisees’ business must be funded by the franchisee. Because of this company structure Burger King has not advanced in the upgrade as successfully as McDonald’s, and could hurt future investment by franchisees.
Research into this arena has shown that there are a couple of things to learn about this method of benchmarking. The first thing that is learned is that a business should not be tied to a product. Burger King has done this by having the word “Burger” in the name of the company. McDonald’s has remained free from this image which has allowed them to remain competitive in the fast food market. Dr. Ettlie points out in “Issues and Analysis” that customers of fast food companies like variety, and will leave a business totally if variety exists elsewhere. This is what leads to the second benchmarking, which is to diversify. McDonald’s has branched out with their new McCafe products, and fruit smoothies, again devastating sales at Burger King.
Factors of Production
McDonald’s uses JIT manufacturing in their stores. JIT stands for “Just in Time”. This is a manufacturing system where the product is “pulled” on by the customer, rather than “driven” by the company. In a traditional system, the company may sit by and say that they plan to sell 100 units of food during the day. They would trend this data around demand times and produce accordingly. What happens is that some of the food will either not get sold, or will be in storage for some period of time. The benefits to this method are that the company pays less money in inventory and storage, and pays less money for inventory on hand. On the same hand, there can be outages by single source suppliers, causing temporary inventory outages. When using this method it is a good idea to be dual sourced.
Labor Intensive/Capital Intensive
McDonald’s is a large company. To run this company, a large, labor intensive capital base is needed. With 2,800 corporate employees, 32,000 restaurants in 100 countries, 1.5 million total employees, serving 47 million customers daily, this is no small operation. Money has to be managed appropriately to keep the business lean, and able to respond to change quickly. McDonald’s has revenue of 23 million dollars per year, with operating expenses exceeding 11 million dollars and a net income of 4.5 million dollars. With all of this money coming through this corporation and managing all of the employee and customer issues, McDonald’s still brings in a net income of 4.5 million dollars on average. This is very impressive considering the size of the company and the volume of production. McDonalds does this by balancing a 14 million dollar stockholder equity consisting of profits and 30 million dollars in assets. This company is a giant.
So how does one feed a giant? The giant is fed by suppliers. These suppliers produce the quantities demanded by McDonalds’ consumers, which is no little task. An example of this volume demanded is the fact that McDonald’s is the single largest consumer of US beef in the United States. They outsource some of their requirements to New Zealand, and Australia, but overall they consumer American beef.
Sources of Raw Materials
Their coffee is produced by Gavina gormet coffee company. This company has been producing coffee for McDonalds for the last 25 years. Overall, the company supplies McDonalds with over 400 million cups of coffee per year. This is no small bill for any supplier, so they have learned to respond to McDonald’s demand. This company gets its coffee beans from Central America, South America, and Southern California.
Lopez Foods is another beef supplier that operates outside of the United States. Although not a major US consumer of beef, they deserve to be noted because they have been supplying beef to McDonald’s for the past 25 years.
McDonald’s strives to keep from using a single source method of management because with the JIT manufacturing system it would be painful to run out of meat. This is where the Keystone Food Company comes into play. The Keystone Food Company has been working with McDonald’s for the past 40 years. They are the company that developed the quick freeze process, and developed chicken nuggets, which has become a favorite on the McDonald’s menu.
Finally, what would all this beef be without French Fries? These French fries come from potatoes grown at 100 circle farms. They produce potatoes in circles that are so large they can be seen from outer space. This crop yields from 1,000 tons to 2,400 tons per day, which is an incredible amount. This is a single source operation, where this company digs and processes all potatoes for McDonald’s fries.
Sensitivity to Global Economy
Patrick Cain, (2010) tells us that for a 1% global increase in food prices, McDonald’s has to raise customer prices by one-quarter of a percent. What this boils down to is that the price that a consumer pays for food is directly related to the global food price. Since McDonald’s purchases food from commodity suppliers, shortages in supply can cause spikes in prices in stores. This same article tells us that if grocery stores manage to keep their prices from going up, through using their own suppliers, then McDonald’s cannot raise their prices on food, because consumers will not accept the increase. All of these factors contribute to the shareholder’s dividend, so the pressure to raise prices can be strong during these times.
Macro and International Influences on the Firm
McDonald’s in different areas of the world all have different types of food that they serve, based on the location of the restaurant in which they work. Workforce Management published several of the different types of foods that one can purchase based on the geographic location of the restaurant. In India, one can order a Chicken Maharajah Mac, in Japan one can order a green tea milkshake, or a Koroke sandwich, and in Germany one can order a beer with their sandwich. The fact that this restaurant has become so global and so diverse based on geography ensures that the global economy affects the business as well.
Sales and Financial Performance
McDonald’s is a very financially sound company. According to their Data monitor, company revenue for the fiscal year 2009 was $22,744.7 million which was a 3.3% decrease from 2008. The decrease in revenue was due to a higher percentage of franchised owned stores where McDonald’s receives rent or royalties based on a percentage of stores sales instead of company owned stores where they received full revenue from sales.
Of the $22,744.7 million in revenue, the largest portion was earned in Europe. Sales in Europe were $9,273.8 million, accounting for 40.8% of total sales. The second largest portion was earned in the United States with $7,943.8 million or 34.9%. Asia/Pacific, Middle East, and Africa (APMEA) revenues were $4,337 million or 19.1%. The remaining revenue of $1,190.1 million or 5.2% was from other countries and corporate which includes Canada and Latin America.
Operating profit for the fiscal year 2009 was $6,841 million which was a 6.2% increase from 2008. Net income for the fiscal year 2009 was $4,551 million which was a 5.5% increase from 2008.
Key Products & Services Provided
McDonald’s is primarily known for its burgers and fries. McDonald’s operates in over 100 countries and offers a standardized menu with some geographic variations. Their key products include hamburgers and cheeseburgers, chicken sandwiches, French fries, wraps, chicken nuggets, salads, desserts, sundaes, soft serve cones, pies and cookies. They also offer beverages such as milk shakes, soft drinks, coffee and flavored tea. In many markets, McDonald’s also offers a variety of breakfast items such as hot cakes, muffins, biscuits, and bagel sandwiches. Some of McDonald’s key brand names for their products include Big Mac, Big N’ Tasty, Filet-O-Fish, McNuggets, McFlurry, McMuffin, and McGriddles.
Market Share Information
McDonald’s dominates the fast food industry. They were ranked #1 based on sales in the 2009 Top Hamburger Restaurant Chains survey with $31 billion in sales. Burger King was ranked #2 with sales of $9 billion, Wendy’s was ranked #3 with sales of $8.38 billion and Sonic was ranked #4 with sales of $3.83 billion. McDonald’s was also ranked #1 based on sales in the 2009 Top Quick Service Restaurant Chains survey with $31 billion in sales. Subway was ranked #2 with sales of $10 billion, Burger King was ranked #3 with sales of $9 billion and Wendy’s was ranked #4 with sales of $8.38 billion. McDonald’s outranked the other companies in the survey by over $20 billion in sales showing that they have the largest market share in the industry.
McDonald’s operates its stores in two ways: company owned stores and franchised stores. According to McDonald’s Data monitor, McDonald’s has 32,478 restaurants. 6,200 are company owned restaurants where McDonald’s gets revenue from restaurant sales. The remaining restaurants are franchises where McDonald’s gets revenue from either rent and/or royalties based on a percentage of sales.
Locations for Production/Distribution
McDonald’s operates in over 100 countries with its primary markets in Europe, Asia Pacific and Northern America. The company headquarters is located in Oak Brook, Illinois and employees 385,000 people. McDonald’s has stand alone restaurants as well as locations inside airports, toll stops, colleges and malls.
Policies & Strategies on Pricing
One of McDonald’s main pricing strategies is its dollar menu. The dollar menu made its debut in the U.S and was so successful it now appears in restaurants across the world. The dollar menu is very successful at appealing to college students or low income families.
While the dollar menu is very successful, a fast food restaurant needs to have both bargain and premium options to appeal to more types of consumers. Danya Proud, spokesperson for McDonald’s states that the dollar menu is “a big deal, but it would be a mistake to think that’s the only thing driving business. It’s important to look at it holistically, not just at the Dollar Menu. There’s balance there, and value is seeded throughout our menu” (Commes, 2009, p. 14).
Policies & Strategies on Marketing
McDonald’s has developed many effective marketing strategies. One of McDonald’s most successful marketing strategies is the Happy Meal and Ronald McDonald clown. While Happy Meals account for less than 10% of total U.S. sales, that’s still a total of $30.9 billion in 2009. According to Darren Tristano, exec VP at Technomic, that 10% of sales “would be more than Panera Bread, IHOP or Dairy Queen chains sold individually in the U.S. in 2009” (Morrison, 2010, p. 2). Besides the sales aspect, the Happy Meal’s main advantage to McDonald’s is the value it brings to the brand name. The Happy Meal plays a role in getting families to choose McDonald’s over a competitor. Eric Giandelone, director-food service research at Mintel states that “it’s one of those products that’s so associated with the brand-it may be more associated with McDonald’s than the Big Mac. It’s iconic” (Morrison, 2010, p. 2).
McDonald’s is also using the latest and greatest technology to market to consumers. McDonald’s is one company that has used a new feature on Facebook called Facebook Deals which allows consumers to check in on their mobile phone and get a discount. This feature is valuable for the consumer as they receive a discount on products but it is also valuable for the company because when consumers check in at the location, all of their friends on Facebook can see they are at McDonald’s getting their company name out.
Another successful marketing strategy include release of limited time items such as the McRib, a sandwich with a boneless pork patty molded into the shape of ribs and topped with barbeque sauce, pickles and onions. The limited availability of the sandwich has spawned fan pages, blogs and followers. Ashlee Yingling, spokesperson for McDonald’s USA, states that “to keep it relevant and appealing to our customers, it will continue to be offered as a limited-time promotion” (Morrison, 2010, p. 3). Other limited time items that McDonald’s utilizes to boost sales include the Shamrock Shake and the Monopoly promotion.
Policies & Strategies on Distribution
McDonald’s utilizes distribution centers to store products for delivery to local stores. According to Kator, the facility is divided into three areas: dry goods, chilled for produce, cheese, and other products kept at 38 degrees, and frozen where the temperature stays below zero. (Kator, 2007, p. 31).
McDonald’s Data monitor lists one of its strengths as “strong brand value draws customers to McDonald’s restaurants” (McDonald’s Corporation, 2010, p. 20). This well established brand name is one of their key positive consumer perceptions. McDonald’s has a strong brand which can lead to consumers to choosing them over a competitor. This strong brand also makes it easier for McDonald’s to enter new regions and markets. Since they have such an established brand name, it makes consumers in new markets more likely to try their restaurant once it is opened.
McDonald’s has also had to deal with some negative consumer perceptions however they have not had a significant effect on company sales. In 2002 – 2003, there were many lawsuits filed between consumers, mainly children against fast food restaurants suing for obesity related issues. While these cases were not unsuccessful, the idea linking fast food and obesity still lingers in consumer’s minds.
Another negative consumer perception in the obesity area came about when the movie Super Size Me was released in 2004. The film documented a person eating three meals a day at McDonald’s for a thirty day period and gaining 25 pounds.
McDonald’s took steps to combat the obesity perception. In April 2004, McDonald’s announced its commitment to ‘balanced lifestyles.’ Ken Barun, corporate VP for balanced lifestyles and CEO and president of Ronald McDonald House Charities told PR Week “our customers were telling us that they wanted more choice and balance. We started working vigorously on the plan to pull things together. A lot of the stuff that was announced today was in the making for one or two years” (Source Watch, 2010).
McDonald’s has also turned to sponsorship of major events to help their image. McDonald’s has teamed up British Farmers to co-sponsor the 2012 Olympics. By sponsoring events like this, it helps boost McDonald’s image by helping the community.
McDonald’s has the market share covered on burgers and fries but there are many things they can do to improve sales and therefore profit. The first area that could improve sales would be to expand into the submarine sandwich market. This would include cold cut lunch meat, breads, and sandwich fixings like you would find in a Subway or Quizno’s restaurant. Consumers are becoming more health conscious and having healthy subs along with other regular menu items could improve a families chance of choosing McDonald’s since there are options for all family members.
Another option that would boost sales would be to add an ice cream shop inside McDonald stores or expand their dessert menu. In the summer time, school kids often ride their bikes to get ice cream from local stands or Dairy Queen. If McDonald’s offered a wider variety of ice cream, they could increase sales by bringing in customers for ice cream and possibly sell other items while they are in the store as well.
A third option to improve sales would be to open stand alone McDonald’s coffee houses. McDonald’s has put a lot of advertising into improving their coffee line and advertising to compete with Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts in the premium coffee arena. Opening stand alone coffee shops could them break into the coffee industry and gain market share in this popular industry.
A final option would be to diversify menu items. Some examples of this could be to make the popular McRib sandwich a permanent item on the menu, offer more options for chicken sandwiches to compete with Chick-fil-A, and offer personal pan pizza’s to compete with local pizza shops that offer the slice of pizza lunch options. By increase the variety of menu items sold, McDonald’s would be increasing their customer base and becoming more of a one-stop-shop for fast dining. If members of a family are in disagreement over what type of food they want, this would make McDonald’s a popular choice with a vast array of food options.
Cohn, Jeffrey, Katzenbach, Jon, & Vlak, Gus. (2008, December 16). How to find and nurture innovators. Retrieved from http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/lmr/finding-innovators
Coomes, S. (Jan 26, 2009). 6 bulk up sales with ‘barbell’ pricing: discount and premium items appeal to both end of consumer spectrum. Nation’s Restaurant News, 43(3), p. 14. Retrieved from General Business File ASAP via Gale: http://0-find.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=indwesun
Diversity at mcdonald’s: a way of life. (2005, April 11). Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_15_39/ai_n13649047/McDonald’s Corporation, (n.d.), Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Ettlie, J. E., (1999). What the auto industry can learn from mcdonald’s. College of Business Administration-Rochester Instituted of Technology. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Helm, B. (2010). An expensive face-lift on burger king’s menu. Bloomberg Businessweek, (4199), 21-22. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Kator, C. (April 1, 2007). Quick flow of fast food. Modern Materials Handling, 62(4), p. 31. Retrieved from General Business File ASAP via Gale: http://0-find.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=indwesun
Martin, Richard. (1998). McDonald’s co. Japan ltd. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_n4_v32/ai_20199553/
McDonald’s Corporation. (May 25, 2010). Datamonitor/Life Science Analytics Company Profiles. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Morrison, M. (Nov. 29, 2010). Just how happy does the happy meal make McDonald’s? Even at fewer than 10% of sales, the iconic kids’ line is bigger than Panera, IHOP. Advertising Age, 81(42), p. 2. Retrieved from Academic OneFile via Gale: http://0-find.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=indwesun
Morrison, M. (Nov. 1, 2010). Secret McRib network defunct as McD’s rolls it out nationwide; effort may take some of the fun out of cult sandwich – but it’s still only available for limited time. Advertising Age, 81(39), p. 3. Retrieved from Academic OneFile via Gale: http://0-find.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=indwesun
Odell, P. (Nov. 9, 2010). Macy’s, McDonald’s, others test new Facebook Deals app. Promo (Online Exclusive), p.N.A. Retrieved from General Business File ASAP via Gale: http://0-find.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=indwesun
Patrick, C. (2010, November 3). Commodities affect prices at mcdonald’s. Investors Business Daily. P. B03. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Source Watch (2011). Retrieved from http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=McDonald%27s
Sterrett, David. (2007, July 25). McDonald’s faces teen labor shortage. Retrieved from http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?reqstyleid=2&mode=form&reqsrcid=APAWebPage&more=yes&nameCnt=1
Top Hamburger Restaurant Chains (2009). QSR Annual 2010. Retrieved from Business and Company Resource Center via Gale: http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/servlet/BCRC?vrsn=unknown&locID=indwesun&srchtp=glbc&cc=2&c=8&mode=c&ste=93&tbst=tsCM&tab=4096&ccmp=McDonald%27s+Corp.&mst=McDonald%27s&n=25&docNum=I2501270683&bConts=13247
Top Quick Service Restaurant Chains (2009). QSR Annual 2010. Retrieved from Business and Company Resource Center via Gale: http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.oak.indwes.edu/servlet/BCRC?vrsn=unknown&locID=indwesun&srchtp=glbc&cc=2&c=4&mode=c&ste=95&tbst=tsCM&tab=8192&ccmp=McDonald%27s+Corp.&mst=McDonald%27s&n=25&docNum=I2502036287&bConts=13247
Turning around a burger king past its prime. (2010, September 09). Retrieved from: Marketingweek.co.uk
Values in practice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/content/mcd/csr/about/values.html
Wiscombe, J. (2010). Mcdonald’s corp. workforce management, 89(11), 38-40. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.